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1 +Contention 1 : The Status Quo
2 +
3 +1. Civilian owned dogs are labeled property, allowing officers to kill them with no consequences
4 +Livni 2016(Ephrat Livni “US police shoot dogs so often that a Justice Department expert calls it an “epidemic” is a writer and lawyer. She has worked around the world and now lives large in a tiny cabin in California's redwood forest. Ephrat wrote for the Jerusalem Report, ABC News, and FindLaw, served in the Peace Corps in Senegal, taught English in Japan, was a public defender in Florida, and worked as an attorney at Google in Silicon Valley. Quartz Dec 23 2016)-007
5 +Police and dogs in the US have a complicated relationship. On the one hand
6 +AND
7 +and estimates that 25 to 30 pet dogs are killed daily by police.
8 +
9 +2. Police Owned Dogs are protected by law as living things
10 +Robinson 2017 (Bryan Robinson “Federal Law Now Protects Canine Cops” ABC News Aug 9 2017)-007
11 +For those tempted to punch a horse during a demonstration or kick a narcotics dog
12 +AND
13 +National Park Service and those who protect the U.S. Capitol.
14 +
15 +Plan
16 +
17 +The Plan: The USFG should provide domesticated pets with the same protections given to law enforcement animals and establish national training standards for police interactions with pets.
18 +
19 +Advantage One: Anthropocentrism
20 +
21 +1. Anthropocentrism is the root cause of racism
22 +Maneesha Deckha, Associate Professor, Law, University of Victoria, “It’s Time to Abandon the Idea of ‘Human’ Rights,” THE SCAVENGER, 12—12—10, www.thescavenger.net/social-justice-sp-24912/animals/536-its-time-to-abandon-the-idea-ofhuman-rights-77234.html, accessed 4-28-14.
23 +While the intersection of race and gender is often acknowledged in understanding the etiology of
24 +AND
25 +is the “species thinking” that helps to create the racial demarcation.
26 +
27 +2. Violence Against animals leads to violence against humans
28 +Peeples 2015(Lynne Peeples “If You Want To Stop Violence Against People, Stop Violence Against Animals” 10/08/2015)
29 +From Colorado to Australia, research on predictors of child abuse, domestic violence and
30 +AND
31 +the vice president of animal welfare with the Animal Rescue League of Boston.
32 +
33 +3. Structural violence is the largest proximate cause of war- creates priming that psychologically structures escalation
34 +Scheper-Hughes and Bourgois ‘4
35 +(Prof of Anthropology @ Cal-Berkely; Prof of Anthropology @ UPenn)
36 +(Nancy and Philippe, Introduction: Making Sense of Violence, in Violence in
37 +AND
38 +that scale and warfare, not that one form of social exclusion comes first
39 +
40 +4. Structural violence locks in social and environmental tension~-~--makes war inevitable and culminates in extinction
41 +Tamás Szentes 8, Professor Emeritus at the Corvinus University of Budapest. “Globalisation and prospects of the world society” 4/22/08 http://www.eadi.org/fileadmin/Documents/Events/exco/Glob.___prospects_-_jav..pdf
42 +It’ s a common place that human society can survive and develop only in a
43 +AND
44 +mass destructive weapons, and also due to irreversible changes in natural environment.
45 +
46 +5. Establishing Pets as Sentient beings rejects anthro—creates mindset shift
47 +Kjlk Hodgson 15 (Sarah Hodgson, “Re-Classifying Dogs as Sentient Beings: It’s Time, America, It’s Time” Huffington Post 12/4/15)-007
48 +Last week, Quebec welcomed pets into the circle of “sentient” beings by
49 +AND
50 +our dogs into the realm of beloved family members where they ultimately belong.
51 +
52 +6. Elimination of Anthropocentric thinking allows for solvency of political and economic conflicts
53 +Dr. Ted Mosquin, formerly of University of Alberta and University of California-Berkeley and Stan Rowe, Emeritus Professor, University of Saskatchewan, "A Manifesto for Earth," BIODIVERSITY v. 5 n. 1, 2004, p. 3-4.
54 +Everyone searches for meaning in life, for supportive convictions that take various forms.
55 +AND
56 +with our prodigal species once again a cooperative, responsible, ethical member.
57 +
58 +Advantage Two: Legitimacy
59 +
60 +1. Legitimacy is key to social order
61 +Escutia 2016 (Xochitl Escutia, BODY-WORN CAMERAS, PROCEDURAL JUSTICE, AND POLICE LEGITIMACY, A THESIS Presented to the School of Criminology, Criminal Justice, and Emergency Management California State University, Long Beach, December 2016, https://media.proquest.com/media/pq/classic/doc/4288914631/fmt/ai/rep/NPDF?_s=CNmpWPJphWU6ygprBcc6RJfol9Q3D) Slim Shady
62 +Police Legitimacy The principal result of procedural justice is a mechanism of social control categorized
63 +AND
64 +a valuable role in motivating community empowerment (Tyler and Jackson, 2013).
65 +
66 +2. Society’s views of police legitimacy shaped by animal killings
67 +Griffith 2014 (David Griffith, “Can Police Stop Killing Dogs?” Police: The Law Enforcement Magazine, David Griffith has been editor of POLICE Magazine since December 2001. He brings more than 25 years of experience on magazines and newspapers to POLICE . A Maggie award-winning journalist, his byline has appeared on hundreds of articles in POLICE and other national magazines. Oct 29 2014)-007
68 +The weekend after Thanksgiving 2012 Gary Branson went out of town so he had his
69 +AND
70 +who represents law enforcement officers and agencies and trains officers in lawsuit prevention.
71 +
72 +3. In the careless killings of family animals departments continue to destroy police legitimacy and trust
73 +In December 2006, 12-year-old K. Harris was in the backyard of her Hartford, Connecticut, home. She was spending some time with her best friend: her dog, Seven, a St. Bernard. Then two police officers entered the property without a warrant. They were investigating what turned out to be an erroneous tip about guns in an abandoned car on the property (no car, no guns). The officers marched alongside the house to the backyard, and when Seven saw the officers, he took off after them. The officers bolted to the front of the house, just as K., not knowing what was happening, rushed off around the other side of the house to cut off Seven’s path, afraid he would end up in the street. One officer ran clear off the property, but the other, for whatever reason, felt it was necessary to turn and shoot the dog—not just once, but several times. ADVERTISING K. heard the shots as she was running to the front of the house. When she got there, the officer stood over the immobilized and whimpering dog. K. pleaded with him not to shoot again. But after the fatal bullet was delivered, the police officer turned to K. and said simply, “I’m sorry, ma’am. Your dog is not going to make it.” Surprisingly, this story is not an aberration. The death of Seven is just one example of an increasingly common phenomenon known as “puppycide”—the killing of pet dogs by law enforcement. The Department of Justice estimates that nearly 25 dogs are killed by law enforcement every day in the United States, which makes a total of 10,000 per year. The circumstances of each encounter are different, as are the breeds of dog, from Labrador retrievers to pit bulls to Chihuahuas. But the stories are woven with common threads—the rush to violence, abuse of power, fear, and carelessness. The treatment that the Harrises, an African-American family whose home was in the heavily policed Northeast neighborhood of Hartford, received at the hands of the officers is also a reflection of law enforcement’s behavior in communities of color across the country. Certainly, there are encounters involving genuinely dangerous dogs, but the scale of this phenomenon seems to speak to larger problems in law enforcement. “I’m sorry, ma’am. Your dog is not going to make it.” While the death of a dog can be heartbreaking and life-altering for many people—as it was for K. and the Harris family—it does not compare to the death of a person, to the very real and tragic deaths occurring at the hands of police all over this country. I did not make this video to equate the two acts. Rather, as Just a Dog illustrates, puppycide is yet another symptom of the much larger and devastating national malady of wanton police violence. It is a further tear in the fragile trust between civilians and the people we count on to keep us safe. And it is yet more evidence that our increasingly militarized police forces—tricked out in SWAT gear, tensed in a perpetual state of war—are so many decades and policies away from what policing ought to be. As Radley Balko, a leading voice on the militarization of the police, has noted: In too much of policing today, officer safety has become the highest priority. It trumps the rights and safety of suspects. It trumps the rights and safety of bystanders. It’s so important, in fact, that an officer’s subjective fear of a minor wound from a dog bite is enough to justify using potentially lethal force… But this video is about more than just police militarization and violence. At its core, Just a Dog is the story of a father’s love for his daughter, and the sense of responsibility engendered by that love. When Seven was killed, K. was devastated—depressed, suicidal, haunted by PTSD. Her father, Glen Harris, was her rock. Not only did he care for her physically and emotionally, but he set out on a bold legal course to unleash the power of the law. He sued the town and the police for infringement of their Fourth Amendment rights against illegal search and seizure (pets are considered chattel, or property, and there is no recourse beyond small-damages claims). Glen has put his savings on the line to pursue justice in the name of his daughter and his dog, in a time and place where justice is in short supply. Police forces across the country, in municipalities large and small—from Texas to Ohio to Colorado—have begun to take steps to train officers in canine encounters. This is commendable and necessary; a trend that I hope continues to spread. If postal workers can handle daily confrontations with dogs without resorting to lethal force, surely police officers can learn alternative tactics as well. It’s also important to note that not all police officers are as quick to violence as others—certainly there are compassionate, responsible cops out there. But training and personal variations aside, as trends like puppycide, along with the surge in media attention to police killings of unarmed African Americans have demonstrated, we must look deeper into the tangled soul of American policing, to root out the ills that are plaguing it from within.
74 +
75 +4. Police misconduct degrades institutional legitimacy – if citizens view authorities as immoral they will disregard them
76 +Hough et. al 10 (Mike Hough, Kings College London Jonathan Jackson, London School of Economics Ben Bradford, University of Edinburgh Andy Myhill, National Policing Improvement Agency Paul Quinton, National Policing Improvement Agency, Procedural justice, trust and institutional legitimacy. Policing: a journal of policy and practice, 4 (3). pp. 203-210.) Slim Shady
77 +But there is a separate set of questions about the ability of a criminal justice
78 +AND
79 +behave however they please, and ignore the rules, so can I.
80 +
81 +5. A loss of state level legitimacy tanks overall legitimacy
82 +Kovacs 13 (Jacqueline Kovacs, Legitimacy and American Declininism: A Nonstandard Approach to a Platitudinous Debate, Glendon Journal of International Studies, ‎2013) Slim Shady
83 +The fourth dimension of American penetrated and institutionalized hegemonic system no longer appears to be
84 +AND
85 +a certain element of coercion, becoming a form of power in itself.
86 +
87 +6. Institutional legitimacy is the only way to exercise hegemony to maintain peace
88 +Lamii Movi Kromah ,Department of International Relations University of the Witwatersrand, February 2009 (Lamii Moivi Kromah, Department of International Relations University of the Witwatersrand, February 2009, “The Institutional Nature of U.S. Hegemony: Post 9/11”, http://wiredspace.wits.ac.za/bitstream/handle/10539/7301/MARR2009.pdf)
89 +A final major gain to the United States from the Pax Americana has perhaps been
90 +AND
91 +region-did accrue to many others, not just to Americans.50
92 +
93 +7. Multiple conflicts go global without US hegemony
94 +(Nye 96)
95 +Joseph Nye. (Dean of Harvard’s Kennedy School of Government), Washington Quarterly,
96 +AND
97 +of bilateral alliances, regional security organizations and alliances, and global institutions.
98 +
99 +8. Officer Training Key to preventing puppycide
100 +Robinson 15 (Nathan J. Robinson “Police can shoot your dog for no reason. It doesn’t have to be that way.” The Washington Post 11/13/2015)-007
101 +There are Web pages dedicated to compiling accounts of the killings, along with the
102 +AND
103 +downright sickening, such as a Baltimore officer who cut a dog’s throat.
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